Gps Receiver Testing
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Another technique of GPS receiver testing is measuring the receiver’s tracking ability to take care of a position repair at a variety of power levels and velocities. Historically, one frequent method to this type of testing is with a mix of drive testing and multipath fading emulation. In a drive check, a prototype receiver is solely driven via a route that is identified for introducing important signal impairments.
You can observe in Figure 2 that up to 60 dB of exterior RF attenuation is often used when testing GPS receivers. Fixed attenuators present the measurement system with at least two benefits. First, they ensure that the noise ground of the check stimulus is properly beneath the thermal noise floor (-174 dBm/Hz). Second, you need to use them to improve the power accuracy as a result of you can calibrate sign stage with a high-precision RF energy meter.
Talking To The Gps Receiver
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Gps Maps & Software
In fact, it is probably you already use GPS receivers in your automotive, boat, and even cell phone. The GPS navigation system consists of 24 satellites that transmit multiple message indicators within the L1 and L2 frequency bands. In the L1 band, at 1.57542 GHz, each satellite tv for pc generates a 1.023 Mchips BPSK unfold spectrum sign. Although the spreading sequence is 1.023 Mchips, the precise message data price is 50 Hz . At the system’s authentic deployment, GPS receivers were capable of achieve a typical accuracy of higher than 30 to 20 m.
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This stage of accuracy was as a result of an intentional random timing error added by the U.S. army for security reasons. However, on May 2, 2000, the error supply (called “selective availability”) was removed. Today, receivers are able to achieve better than 5 m of most error, with typical errors as low as 1 to 2 m. Advanced Tracking Technologies is a number one producer of GPS vehicle and asset tracking systems.
Sensitivity is among the most necessary measurements of a GPS receiver’s capability. In fact, for a lot of industrial-grade GPS receivers, it’s often the only RF measurement performed in production check of the final product.
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However, consumer demands to use GPS receivers indoors or in city environments have pushed the everyday check limits a lot lower. In fact, many GPS receivers report place tracking sensitivity down to -142 dBm and sign monitoring down to -160 dBm. Most GPS receivers can maintain the lock of a signal 6 dB below the everyday operating level in a short time, so, in this instance, use an average RF energy level of -136 dBm for your take a look at stimulus. As you possibly can see, a typical GPS receiver truly cascades several LNAs to provide sufficient achieve to the GPS sign. In addition, the whole RF entrance end has a achieve of 40 dB and an NF of 5 dB.
Thus, when measuring sensitivity, it is important to know the minimum C/N ratio required to achieve a place fix. Now that you’ve got calibrated the ability of your RF measurement system, you possibly can measure sensitivity by programming your RF generator to the facility level at which you anticipate the receiver to return the minimum C/N. While the precise RF power used to measure sensitivity varies from one receiver to the next, the ratio of the receiver of C/N to RF power is completely linear. In your take a look at, you’ll be able to assume that the required C/N ratio is 28 dB-Hz to realize a position fix. From Equation 12, you’ll be able to derive a relationship between the C/N ratio of the receiver and its noise figure.
In this measurement, you increase the generator’s power in zero.1 dB increments. Because the NMEA-183 protocol reports satellite tv for pc C/N to the closest decimal digit, estimating noise figure beyond one digit of precision requires you to investigate the C/N rounding of the receiver. When performing sensitivity measurements, RF energy-level accuracy is among the most essential characteristics of the signal generator. Because receivers report C/N to inside 0 digits of precision (in other words, 34 dB-Hz), sensitivity measurements in manufacturing test are made within ±0.5 dB of energy accuracy.
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While solely 20 dB of attenuation is required to meet the noise flooring aim, you possibly can achieve best energy accuracy and noise floor efficiency when utilizing 60 to 70 dB of attenuation. The international positioning system is a space-based mostly radio navigation system managed by the U.S. While GPS was originally developed as a navy positioning system, it has vital benefits for civilian use as well.
Introduction To Sensitivity Measurements
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Once you have accomplished your GPS sign recording, you can test the receiver repeatedly with the same set of test information. The experiments below tracked the receiver’s latitude, longitude, and velocity over time. Data was read education industry email list and b2b database from the receiver utilizing a serial port, and NMEA-183 instructions had been learn at a rate of once per second. The measurements shown beneath report receiver characteristics similar to place and satellite tv for pc C/N ratios.
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What Is Electronic Data Capture Software?
At a excessive stage, the sensitivity measurement defines the bottom satellite tv for pc energy level at which a receiver continues to be able to track and obtain a place repair on satellites overhead. As you would possibly anticipate, GPS receivers are required to use significant acquire through a number of cascaded LNAs to amplify the sign to the appropriate energy level. Thus, because the RF power levels of a GPS sign enhance, SNR decreases and ultimately the receiver is no longer in a position to monitor the satellite.
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While the drive test is a straightforward way to apply natural impairments to GPS satellite signals, these measurements are often nonrepeatable. In fact, the mixture of factors such as movement in GPS satellites, modifications in weather conditions, and even time of 12 months can have an effect on a receiver’s efficiency. To illustrate this point, consider the connection between RF signal energy and a GPS receiver’s C/N ratio for numerous power ranges. Author Bio
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https://www.missguided.co.ukNote that the measurements proven in Table 7 have been made by making use of a stimulus that bypassed the first LNA, and that the general receiver’s noise figure is approximately eight dB.
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Thus, it is very important make sure that your instrumentation has equal or higher performance. The following part provides perception into two strategies that you should use to ensure the best RF energy accuracy. According to the GPS specification paperwork, the ability of a single L1 satellite ought to be a minimum of -one hundred thirty dBm on the earth’s floor .
When making TTFF and place accuracy measurements, the precise RF power degree does not considerably have an effect on the end result. Thus, it’s sufficient to generally correlate RF power by matching the C/N ratio of off-the-air, simulated, and recorded GPS alerts. Table 7 shows that the noise figure of a receiver is instantly proportional to the RF power stage and C/N ratio. Based on this relationship, you can measure the chipset’s noise figure by correlating the RF power stage with the C/N ratio.
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You can also perform these measurements whereas analyzing different information. Horizontal dilution of precision was not measured within the experiment beneath, however this attribute offers vital details about a receiver’s position repair accuracy.
Generally, the GPS decoding chipset on a receiver determines the minimal C/N ratio required to attain a position repair. However, it’s the noise determine of the whole receiver that determines the C/N ratio you could achieve at a given energy level.
This data is then put to good use to ensure the enterprise maximizes their profits. The data additionally provides the corporate the flexibility to show merchandise that particular users might be more likely to order and buy. The train above illustrates not solely the impact of C/N ratio on position accuracy but also the types of evaluation you could conduct utilizing recorded GPS knowledge. For the experiment above, the drive recording of the GPS signal was really conducted in Huizhou, China . However, the actual receiver was tested at a later date in Austin, Texas.
A last source of GPS take a look at signals for TTFF and place accuracy measurements is simulated multisatellite GPS signals. With the NI GPS Simulation Toolkit for LabVIEW, you possibly can simulate up to 12 satellites at person-outlined TOW, week quantity, and receiver location. The major good thing about this technique of GPS sign simulation is that it results in a GPS signal with the very best SNR. In fact, not like live and recorded GPS indicators, you possibly can create repeatable signals where the noise energy is extraordinarily small. To illustrate this, the frequency domain of a simulated multisatellite signal is proven in Figure 12.
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At a playback energy stage that ends in the same C/N ratio because the reside sign, you could be sure that the reported TTFF and position accuracy is properly-correlated with that of the reside sign. In Table 11, TTFF outcomes are reported for 4 different trials at time-of-week values that are comparable with the live off-the-air sign. Note that to correlate off-the-air GPS indicators with simulated and playback indicators, you will need to correlate the facility of the off-the-air sign.
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Note that as a result of the noise power after LNA2 exceeds thermal noise of -174 dBm/Hz, the bandpass filter attenuates both signal and noise. Finally, assume that the GPS chipset produces a gain of 40 dB with a noise determine of 5 dB. Equation 9 exhibits how one can express sensitivity as a perform of each C/N ratio and noise figure. As an example, if your minimum C/N required for position monitoring is 32 dB-Hz, a receiver with a noise figure of 2 dB has a sensitivity of -one hundred forty dBm (-174 + 32 + 2). However, when testing the baseband transceiver alone, the primary LNA is often bypassed.
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